Using an automated program (web scraper) to gather data (usually metadata) from multiple websites. The data you gather could be all the titles of your competitor’s blog, along with their meta descriptions.

This technique can be used for black hat SEO where the content is scraped and then posted in its entirety on a website you will now have to compete with. When used as part of white hat SEO, the data is used informatively, to discover niche opportunities, for link building purposes or outreach.